List the various types of Mass Media || ignou Assignment || BEGG-171

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ignou assignment question answer
ignou assignment question answer

List the various types of Mass Media ?

Mass media is a term used to denote a section of the media specifically envisioned

and designed to reach a very large audience such as the population of a nation state.

It was coined in the 1920s with the advent of nationwide radio networks, mass-

circulation newspapers and magazines, although mass media was present centuries

before the term became common. Mass communication media makes it possible to

deliver messages to millions of people at roughly the same time. The authors of

these messages are usually organizations and the audiences are composed of


Mass media can be used for various purposes. For instance, it can help both for

business and social concerns. This can include advertising, marketing, propaganda,

public relations and political communication. It can also be used for enrichment,

education and entertainment, through performances of acting, music and sports, as

well as for public service announcements

The concept of mass media is complicated in some internet media as now individuals

have a means of potential exposure on a scale comparable to what was previously

restricted to select group of mass media producers. These internet media can include

television, personal web pages, podcasts and blogs. The communication audience

has been viewed by some commentators as forming a mass society with special

characteristics, notably atomization or lack of social connections, which render it

especially susceptible to the influence of modern mass-media techniques such as

advertising and propaganda. The term “MSM” or “mainstream media” has been

widely used in the blogosphere in discussion of the mass media and media bias.

(1.) Journalism

Journalism is a discipline of collecting, analyzing, verifying and presenting

information regarding current events, trends, issues and people. Those who practice

journalism are known as journalists.

The development and widespread use of printed text in Europe in the 1500s produced

a brand new form of communication. For the first time, a single message could be

duplicated with little error and distributed to thousands of people. First used to

propagate religious texts and arguments, this “mass” approach to communication

quickly caught on and was soon being used to distribute news, entertainment and

government regulations.

News-oriented journalism is sometimes described as the “first rough draft of history”

(attributed to Phil Graham), because journalists often record important events,

producing news articles on short deadlines. While under pressure to be first with

their stories, news media organizations usually edit and proof read their reports

prior to publication, adhering to each organization’s standards of accuracy, quality

and style. Many news organizations claim proud traditions of holding government

officials and institutions accountable to the public, while media critics have raised

questions about holding the press itself accountable.

(2.) Broadcasting and Telecasting

Broadcasting is the distribution of audio and/or video signals (programs) to a number

of recipients (“listeners” or “viewers”) that belong to a large group. This group may

be the public in general, or a relatively large audience within the public. Thus, an

Internet channel may distribute text or music world-wide, while a public address

system in (for example) a workplace may broadcast very limited ad hoc sound bites

to a small population within its range.

Television and radio programs are distributed through radio broadcasting over

frequency bands that are highly regulated by the Communications Commission.

Such a regulation includes determination of the width of the bands, range, licensing,

types of receivers and transmitters used and acceptable content.

Cable programs are often broadcast simultaneously with radio and television

programs, but have a more limited audience. By coding signals and having decoding

equipment in homes, cable also enables subscription-based channels and pay-per-

view services.

A broadcasting organization may broadcast several programs at the same time,

through several channels (frequencies), for example BBC One and Two. On the

other hand, two or more organizations may share a channel and each use it during a

fixed part of the day. Digital radio and digital television may also transmit

multiplexed programming, with several channels compressed into one ensemble.

When broadcasting is done via the Internet the term webcasting is often used. In

2004 a new phenomenon occurred when a number of technologies combined to

produce podcasting. Podcasting is an asynchronous broadcast/narrowcast medium,

with one of the main proponents being Adam Curry and his associates’ the Podshow.

(3.) Internet

The Internet (also known simply as “the Net” or “the Web”) can be briefly understood

as “a network of networks”. Specifically, it is the worldwide, publicly accessible

network of interconnected computer networks that transmit data by packet switching

using the standard Internet Protocol (IP). It consists of millions of smaller domestic,

academic, business and governmental networks, which together carry various

information and services, such as electronic mail, online chat, file transfer and the

interlinked Web pages and other documents of the World Wide Web

Contrary to some common usage, the Internet and the World Wide Web are not

synonymous. The Internet is a collection of interconnected computer networks,

linked by copper wires, fiber-optic cables, wireless connections etc. The Web is a

collection of interconnected documents, linked by hyperlinks and URLs. The World

Wide Web is accessible via the Internet, along with many other services including

e-mail, file sharing and others.


Publishing is the industry concerned with the production of literature or information

– the activity of making information available for public view. In some cases, authors

may be their own publishers.

Traditionally, the term refers to the distribution of printed works such as books and

newspapers. With the advent of digital information systems and the Internet, the

scope of publishing has expanded to include websites, blogs and the like.

As a business, publishing includes the development, marketing, production and

distribution of newspapers, magazines, books, literary works, musical works,

software, and other works dealing with information.

Publication is also important as a legal concept; (1) as the process of giving formal

notice to the world of a significant intention, for example, to marry or enter

bankruptcy and (2) as the essential precondition of being able to claim defamation,

that is, the alleged libel must have been published.

(4.) Mobile

Mobile phones were introduced in Japan in 1997 but became a mass media only in

1998 when the first downloadable ringing tones were introduced in Finland. Soon

most forms of media content were introduced on mobile phones. The mobile media

content includes over 8 billion dollars worth of mobile music (ringing tones, ring

back tones, true tones, MP3 files, karaoke, music videos, music streaming services,

etc); over 5 billion dollars worth of mobile gaming and various news, entertainment

and advertising services. In Japan mobile phone books are so popular that five of

the ten best-selling printed books were originally released as mobile phone books.

Similar to the internet, mobile is also an interactive media, but has a far wider

reach. Like email on the internet, the top application on mobile is also a personal

messaging service, and SMS text messaging is used by over 2.4 billion people.

Practically all internet services and applications exist or have similar cousins on

mobile, from search to multiplayer games to virtual worlds to blogs. Mobile has

several unique benefits which many mobile media pundits claim, make mobile a

more powerful media than either TV or the internet, starting with mobile being

permanently carried and always connected. Mobile has the best audience accuracy

and is the only mass media with a built-in payment channel available to every user

without any credit cards or PayPal accounts or even an age limit. With the inclusion

of various aps like Whatsapp or Wechat the mobile is perhaps the most popular medium of mass communication.

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