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List the various types of Mass Media ? List the various types
Mass media is a term used to denote a section of the media specifically envisioned
and designed to reach a very large audience such as the population of a nation state.
It was coined in the 1920s with the advent of nationwide radio networks, mass-
circulation newspapers and magazines, although mass media was present centuries
before the term became common. Mass communication media makes it possible to
deliver messages to millions of people at roughly the same time. The authors of
these messages are usually organizations and the audiences are composed of
Mass media can be used for various purposes. For instance, it can help both for
business and social concerns. This can include advertising, marketing, propaganda,
public relations and political communication. It can also be used for enrichment,
education and entertainment, through performances of acting, music and sports, as
well as for public service announcements
The concept of mass media is complicated in some internet media as now individuals
have a means of potential exposure on a scale comparable to what was previously
restricted to select group of mass media producers. These internet media can include
television, personal web pages, podcasts and blogs. The communication audience
has been viewed by some commentators as forming a mass society with special
characteristics, notably atomization or lack of social connections, which render it
especially susceptible to the influence of modern mass-media techniques such as
advertising and propaganda. The term “MSM” or “mainstream media” has been
widely used in the blogosphere in discussion of the mass media and media bias.
Journalism is a discipline of collecting, analyzing, verifying and presenting
information regarding current events, trends, issues and people. Those who practice
journalism are known as journalists.
The development and widespread use of printed text in Europe in the 1500s produced
a brand new form of communication. For the first time, a single message could be
duplicated with little error and distributed to thousands of people. First used to
propagate religious texts and arguments, this “mass” approach to communication
quickly caught on and was soon being used to distribute news, entertainment and
News-oriented journalism is sometimes described as the “first rough draft of history”
(attributed to Phil Graham), because journalists often record important events,
producing news articles on short deadlines. While under pressure to be first with
their stories, news media organizations usually edit and proof read their reports
prior to publication, adhering to each organization’s standards of accuracy, quality
and style. Many news organizations claim proud traditions of holding government
officials and institutions accountable to the public, while media critics have raised
questions about holding the press itself accountable.
(2.) Broadcasting and Telecasting
Broadcasting is the distribution of audio and/or video signals (programs) to a number
of recipients (“listeners” or “viewers”) that belong to a large group. This group may
be the public in general, or a relatively large audience within the public. Thus, an
Internet channel may distribute text or music world-wide, while a public address
system in (for example) a workplace may broadcast very limited ad hoc sound bites
to a small population within its range.
Television and radio programs are distributed through radio broadcasting over
frequency bands that are highly regulated by the Communications Commission.
Such a regulation includes determination of the width of the bands, range, licensing,
types of receivers and transmitters used and acceptable content.
Cable programs are often broadcast simultaneously with radio and television
programs, but have a more limited audience. By coding signals and having decoding
equipment in homes, cable also enables subscription-based channels and pay-per-
A broadcasting organization may broadcast several programs at the same time,
through several channels (frequencies), for example BBC One and Two. On the
other hand, two or more organizations may share a channel and each use it during a
fixed part of the day. Digital radio and digital television may also transmit
multiplexed programming, with several channels compressed into one ensemble.
When broadcasting is done via the Internet the term webcasting is often used. In
2004 a new phenomenon occurred when a number of technologies combined to
produce podcasting. Podcasting is an asynchronous broadcast/narrowcast medium,
with one of the main proponents being Adam Curry and his associates’ the Podshow.
The Internet (also known simply as “the Net” or “the Web”) can be briefly understood
as “a network of networks”. Specifically, it is the worldwide, publicly accessible
network of interconnected computer networks that transmit data by packet switching
using the standard Internet Protocol (IP). It consists of millions of smaller domestic,
academic, business and governmental networks, which together carry various
information and services, such as electronic mail, online chat, file transfer and the
interlinked Web pages and other documents of the World Wide Web
Contrary to some common usage, the Internet and the World Wide Web are not
synonymous. The Internet is a collection of interconnected computer networks,
linked by copper wires, fiber-optic cables, wireless connections etc. The Web is a
collection of interconnected documents, linked by hyperlinks and URLs. The World
Wide Web is accessible via the Internet, along with many other services including
e-mail, file sharing and others.
Publishing is the industry concerned with the production of literature or information
– the activity of making information available for public view. In some cases, authors
may be their own publishers.
Traditionally, the term refers to the distribution of printed works such as books and
newspapers. With the advent of digital information systems and the Internet, the
scope of publishing has expanded to include websites, blogs and the like.
As a business, publishing includes the development, marketing, production and
distribution of newspapers, magazines, books, literary works, musical works,
software, and other works dealing with information.
Publication is also important as a legal concept; (1) as the process of giving formal
notice to the world of a significant intention, for example, to marry or enter
bankruptcy and (2) as the essential precondition of being able to claim defamation,
that is, the alleged libel must have been published.
Mobile phones were introduced in Japan in 1997 but became a mass media only in
1998 when the first downloadable ringing tones were introduced in Finland. Soon
most forms of media content were introduced on mobile phones. The mobile media
content includes over 8 billion dollars worth of mobile music (ringing tones, ring
back tones, true tones, MP3 files, karaoke, music videos, music streaming services,
etc); over 5 billion dollars worth of mobile gaming and various news, entertainment
and advertising services. In Japan mobile phone books are so popular that five of
the ten best-selling printed books were originally released as mobile phone books.
Similar to the internet, mobile is also an interactive media, but has a far wider
reach. Like email on the internet, the top application on mobile is also a personal
messaging service, and SMS text messaging is used by over 2.4 billion people.
Practically all internet services and applications exist or have similar cousins on
mobile, from search to multiplayer games to virtual worlds to blogs. Mobile has
several unique benefits which many mobile media pundits claim, make mobile a
more powerful media than either TV or the internet, starting with mobile being
permanently carried and always connected. Mobile has the best audience accuracy
and is the only mass media with a built-in payment channel available to every user
without any credit cards or PayPal accounts or even an age limit. With the inclusion
of various aps like Whatsapp or Wechat the mobile is perhaps the most popular medium of mass communication.
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